First Draft

  1. Introduction
    1. Purpose of this study

My research topic is “The effectiveness of reading aloud”. I already learned the importance of reading aloud a little in some classes at Gunma university, but I am interested in that way so I want to know more about it. I think that knowing the effectiveness of reading aloud is important to me and to students. There are many English teachers who use reading aloud in their classes, but I think that they do not know about the effectiveness clearly. If teachers know it, they might use reading aloud more effectively and it means students can improve their abilities more. That is one of the purposes of this study. Through my experiences, I also want to know how reading aloud improved my English ability. I think that it will be helpful for me to become a good English teacher.

  1. Significance of this study

      Students are required to gain four skills recently, and there are many new types of activities for them. However, I think that it is important to focus on improving the activity which we usually do in classes. It makes students feel relieved because they do what they are used to do already. It can also motivate them to learn English.

  • Current situation of reading aloud

 2-1 How to manage reading aloud instruction in Japanese secondary school

  In Japan, teachers usually use the textbook for reading aloud. However, they are not seemed to have some ideas about when they do reading aloud or what contents they use for reading aloud. Depending on those things, the effectiveness of reading aloud changes significantly. Thus, it is good to know about it.

2-2 How students in Japanese secondary school use reading aloud

      This is connected to how teachers use reading aloud. I think many students use the way only in classes, so I want to know about how students can use reading aloud in their studying.

  • Research question
    • How effective is reading aloud in Japanese secondary school?
    • How do teachers use reading aloud instruction in class?
  • Effective ways of reading aloud and the effects on students

 4-1 The way of using reading aloud (Teachers)

The first common issue is the quality of instruction. The effectiveness of reading aloud is depending on how teachers use the strategies in the class. Baker (2015) argued “Of particular importance is providing high quality instruction when delivering comprehension content and teaching vocabulary”. Few studies looked at the quality of instruction, but I could find that a little difference influenced on how effective it is. That is why I think the quality of instruction is a big deal. Related to this issue, Burgess and Tracey (2006) argued “When using read-alouds, the teacher becomes the model for positive reading behaviors and the bridge for scaffolding the connection between text and read life”. This is also about instruction, and teachers need to think about how they read aloud as models for their students. Students do not have enough opportunities to read aloud and listen to English, so it is effective for students to be exposed to language and literature through the teachers’ models.

 4-2 Effectiveness for students

       The second common issue is the effectiveness on motivation and learning strategy. Jacobs (2016) argued “Perhaps the key goal of reading aloud lies in motivating students to read on their own, and most of that reading will be silent reading, although now and then students might read aloud”. Some researchers say that students’ comprehension skill is improved by reading aloud, but I came to think that it might not be true. Students usually read texts silently if they are not required to read aloud, but I cannot say they do not understand contents. However, students can have more opportunities to discuss with others if they use read-aloud strategy. It can encourage a love for reading.

  • Conclusion

 5-1 Summary of this research paper

      There are some kinds of the effectiveness of reading aloud for secondary school students and some ways of using reading aloud effectively in class.

 5-2 Further research

      I want to know the effect of reading aloud on remembering vocabulary. Some people read aloud to remember, but other people just write down vocabulary to remember them. I want to focus on the difference for Japanese students.

  • Reference

・Omar, A., & Saufi, M. M.(2015). Storybook Read-Alouds to Enhance Students’ Comprehension Skills in ESL Classrooms: A Case Study. Dinamika Ilmu, (v15 n1) p99-113 2015

・Jacobs, G.M. (2016). Dialogic reading aloud to promote extensive reading.

Extensive reading in Japan, (v9 n1), p10-13

・Marchessault, J. K., Larwin, K. H. (2013). Structured Read-Aloud In Middle School: The Potential Impact On Reading Achievement. Contemporary Issues In Education Research, (v6 n2), p241-246

Baker, D. L., Santoro, L., Biancarrosa, G., Baker, S. K. (2015). Effects of Instruction on Student Vocabulary and Comprehension During Read Alouds. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness

・Shinozuka, K., Shibata, S., Mizusawa, Y. (2017). Effectiveness of Read-aloud Instruction on Motivation and Learning Strategy among Japanese College EFL Students. English Language Teaching, (v10 n4), p1-14

Outline

  1. Introduction
    1-1 Purpose of this study
    1-2 Significance of this study
  2. Current situation of reading aloud
    2-1 How to manage reading aloud instruction in Japanese secondary school
    2-2 How students in Japanese secondary school use reading aloud
  3. Research question
    3-1 How effective is reading aloud in Japanese secondary school?
    3-2 How do teachers use reading aloud instruction in class?
  4. Effective ways of reading aloud and the effects on students
    4-1 The way of using reading aloud (Teachers)
    4-2 Effectiveness for students
  5. Conclusion
    5-1 Summary of this research paper
    5-2 Further research
  6. Reference

Synthesis

I read five articles about the effectiveness of reading aloud. I found that there were two common issues which are helpful to support my research.

The first common issue is the quality of instruction. The effectiveness of reading aloud is depending on how teachers use the strategies in the class. Baker (2015) argued “Of particular importance is providing high quality instruction when delivering comprehension content and teaching vocabulary”. Few studies looked at the quality of instruction, but I could find that a little difference influenced on how effective it is. That is why I think the quality of instruction is a big deal. Related to this issue, Burgess and Tracey (2006) argued “When using read-alouds, the teacher becomes the model for positive reading behaviors and the bridge for scaffolding the connection between text and read life”. This is also about instruction, and teachers need to think about how they read aloud as models for their students. Students do not have enough opportunities to read aloud and listen to English, so it is effective for students to be exposed to language and literature through the teachers’ models.

The second common issue is the effectiveness on motivation and learning strategy. Jacobs (2016) argued “Perhaps the key goal of reading aloud lies in motivating students to read on their own, and most of that reading will be silent reading, although now and then students might read aloud”. Some researchers say that students’ comprehension skill is improved by reading aloud, but I came to think that it might not be true. Students usually read texts silently if they are not required to read aloud, but I cannot say they do not understand contents. However, students can have more opportunities to discuss with others if they use read-aloud strategy. It can encourage a love for reading.

Annotated Bibliography 5

Reference

Shinozuka, K., Shibata, S., Mizusawa, Y. (2017). Effectiveness of Read-aloud Instruction on Motivation and Learning Strategy among Japanese College EFL Students. English Language Teaching, (v10 n4), p1-14

Summary

The theme of this article is Effectiveness of Read-aloud Instruction on Motivation and Learning Strategy among Japanese College EFL Students. Japanese college EFL students often have some problems on English performance that are explained by grammar-translation and lecture-memorization instruction. This article explains the effectiveness of the read-aloud instruction package which consists of four major activities: Slash/chunked reading practice, repeated read-aloud practice, cloze test, and simultaneous read-aloud and write-out practice. This study also investigates how Japanese EFL students motivate themselves and the change of their choices of English learning strategies by using “read-aloud instruction package” for there months. As a result, both listening and reading score improved significantly. However, there are not significant changes of motivation after using the instruction. Students could get higher score on TOEIC by using the read-aloud instruction package, but they did not use other strategies. It does not mean that the instruction is not useful because it shows the improvement of reading and listening abilities and a variety of reading activities in the instruction promote students’ motivation.

Assessment

This article is useful for my research because the experiment was conducted in Japanese EFL colleges and the data shows the effectiveness read-aloud instruction. I can use those data from the experiment in my research.

Reflection

This article is related to my research. It explains about read-aloud strategy and Japanese EFL students. But the students have an elementary level of English, so I need to care about it when I use the data from this article.

Annotated Bibliography 4

Reference

Baker, D. L., Santoro, L., Biancarrosa, G., Baker, S. K. (2015). Effects of Instruction on Student Vocabulary and Comprehension During Read Alouds. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness

Summary

The theme of this article is Effects of Instruction on Student Vocabulary and Comprehension During Read Alouds. Reading aloud to students in early grades is the key to improve some kinds on abilities, such as comprehension, vocabulary and phonological awareness. However, just some school think that they can improve comprehension by reading aloud. Also, instructional delivery is very important and it has strong effects on students’ English abilities. The instruction delivery before, during and after reading aloud could change the results of comprehension significantly. A fundamental feature of the read aloud intervention was the use of structured dialogs during and after read aloud between teachers and students. That helped students understand narrative and expository text. In addition to that, the teacher needs to make mistakes correct if students did not understand the contents of the story. Depending on the delivery of instruction, read aloud can be a good way to improve abilities.

Assessment

This article is useful for my research paper because it explains that teachers need to know good ways of instructional delivery to use read aloud strategy properly. I think that the article mainly focuses on the teaching methods, but it connects to the effectiveness of reading aloud.

Reflection

This article is related to my research. It explains about the way to use reading aloud properly, so I can use information form the article for my research.

Annotated Bibliography 3

Reference

Marchessault, J. K., Larwin, K. H. (2013). Structured Read-Aloud In Middle School: The Potential Impact On Reading Achievement. Contemporary Issues In Education Research, (v6 n2), p241-246

Summary

The theme of this article is Structured Read-Aloud in Middle School: The Potential Impact On Reading Achievement. This article explains the effectiveness of reading aloud by comparing two middle schools within the same Virginia school. In a study conducted for the International Association for the Evaluation Achievement, America placed second in the ability of nine-year-old reader internationally but dropped to eighth when fourteen-year-olds were evaluated (Trelease, 2006). There are various reasons but the changes in instructional strategies are the keys. In the experimental school, students spent much time to read aloud, and they could see the differences between two school. The effect of reading aloud influenced on students’ comprehension. The effect on vocabulary is also significant, but not as much as comprehension. Read-aloud has both strength and weakness. One of strengths is that students can engage with the text when they read aloud because they can enjoy. The potential weakness is that students take ownership and they can be free. Teachers need to give them questions that make students think deeply depending on situations.

Assessment

This article is useful for my research paper because it shows the effectiveness by using data through the experiment. I can see clear differences of two schools from the table in the article, so the article can provide information that I need for my research.

Reflection

This article is related to my research. It shows both strength and weakness of read-aloud.  The article is useful, but I need to care about the target of the experiment. I especially want to research the effectiveness in secondary school. However, I still can use many information from the article.

Annotated Bibliography 2

Reference

Jacobs, G.M. (2016). Dialogic reading aloud to promote extensive reading.

Extensive reading in Japan, (v9 n1), p10-13      

Summary

The theme of this article is Dialogic reading aloud to promote extensive reading. This journal mainly explains about extensive reading, but also refers to reading aloud in some ways. It tells us about how important reading aloud to students is. First, it is about teacher’s model pronunciation. Knowing how to pronounce a word should be included in knowing the word. Students can understand the meanings of words when they read though, they cannot pronounce the words properly. For solving the problem, teachers need to pronounce properly as a model. However, teachers also need to know that they are not native speakers so non-native varieties can be included in their English. Second, it is about encouraging a love for reading silently/aloud. Motivating students to read by their own is what teachers should think as one of goals of reading aloud. That will make students have more opportunities to discuss with others. In conclusion, this article explained the reasons why teachers read aloud to students and why reading aloud should be acted in dialogue.

Assessment

This article is useful for my research paper because this clearly explained the reason why reading aloud is effectiveness for students and how to use that way in classrooms. There are many items so that I can get many information widely, but I think that it needs to have some more acutual data.  

Reflection

This article is related to my research in some ways. The journal is mainly about extensive reading, but the article clearly explains about why and how reading aloud is used. So, I am going to use this.

Annotated Bibliography 1

Reference

Omar, A., & Saufi, M. M.(2015). Storybook Read-Alouds to Enhance Students’ Comprehension Skills in ESL Classrooms: A Case Study. Dinamika Ilmu, (v15 n1) p99-113 2015

Summary

In this article, the effectiveness of using storybooks during read-alouds to develop children’s comprehension skills as well as in understanding the story has been widely studied. Many researches show that the reading aloud strategy is the most effective way for learning language and literacy. In ESL classrooms, students usually do many tasks and activities. When teachers do reading aloud to students, they can be motivating and interesting. Reading aloud is also useful for vocabulary acquisition. Three primary school English language teachers teaching in the rural schools participated in this study. This article indicates that the importance of comprehension strategies. Some teachers think that reading aloud is useful only for motivating students. Their comprehension need to be deeper.

Assessment

This article is useful for knowing the effectiveness of the reading aloud strategy in ESL classrooms. Reading aloud while reading stories can encourage children’s literacy development. Reading stories aloud is not only for motivating and extremely interesting, but they can attract listeners as well as promote interaction. This article has a lot of information which is useful for my research, but I want to know the effectiveness of students’ reading aloud more.

Reflection

This article is related to my research in the aspect of teacher’s reading aloud to their students. I want to know about the effectiveness of reading aloud in vocabulary acquisitions more. I am going to focus on it.

Resources for the research

古森剛著 “英語は「音読」だけでいい!” 

Johnston, Vickie “Successful Read-Alouds in Today’s Classroom”

Jacobs, George M” Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading”

Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara; Carlis, Lydia

“Read Alouds and Beyond: The Effects of Read Aloud Extension Activities on Vocabulary in Head Start Classrooms”

Lenhart, JanLenhard, Wolfgang; Vaahtoranta, Enni; Suggate, Sebastian

“Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Listening to Stories: A Comparison between Read-Aloud and Free Storytelling Approaches”

Warner, Lionel; Crolla, Caroline; Goodwyn, Andy; Hyder, Eileen; Richards, Brian

“Reading Aloud in High Schools: Students and Teachers across the Curriculum”

The reason for choosing my research topic

My research topic is “The effectiveness of reading aloud”. I already learned the importance of reading aloud a little in some classes at Gunma university, but I am interested in that way so I want to know more about it. Through my experiences, I also want to know how reading aloud improved my English ability. I think that it will be helpful for me to become a good English teacher.

      First, I was wondering about differences in the way of remembering words or idioms when I was in a junior high school and a high school. I do not need to write down words to remember them, but many classmates said that they needed to write a lot. I always say that it is much easier for me to remember words by reading aloud because it needs less time than writing down words. I still do not know clearly why there are such differences, and how they influence our English ability. As a teacher, I will need to choose and recommend the good way for each student, so I have to know the differences between students now.

      Second, I also think that there are differences in the ability of reading and understanding a long text. During English classes at high school, I had some extra time so I read a long text in a textbook aloud many times. There were times even when I remembered the all of it. Thanks to reading a long text aloud, I got used to read long sentences quickly and properly. However in classes, some students prefer silent reading when they try to improve reading ability because they do not need to pronounce. I believe that it is better if you connect pronunciation to its word. I am really interested in the differences caused by the different way of learning.

      Because of these reasons, I want to research this topic.